The structure of a gas turbine


Gas turbine is an internal combustion engine of rotary type machines that uses the energy of combustion gases.

Each gas turbine has a compressor for compressing air, a combustion chamber to blend air with fuel, and a turbine to convert the energy of combustion of gases into mechanical energy. Part of the mechanical energy produced in the turbine is to spin the turbine itself and the remaining energy, depending on the use of the gas turbine, may spin the generator (turbogenerator), speed it up (turbo-jet and turbofen), or directly (or after Change the pivot speed by the gearbox (same as the turbocharged, turbo-prop, and turbofan).

Control algorithm


For proper and normal operation, different control and protection systems are used in gas turbines.
Without the presence of a proper control system in gas turbines, a great deal of danger threatens the safe and secure operation of the system, and may occur at a short time in the exhaust or stall compressor, or the temperature of the turbine parts is higher than the limit, or The speed of the turbine axis passes through the speed limit, all of which means the occurrence of a dangerous incident.
Therefore, a control system must have a robust design and has high availability and reliability. Gas turbines may be used in various applications such as turbo-generator, turbo-pump, turbo-compressor, etc. Therefore, depending on the application of the gas turbine, the control systems must examine various parameters and issue their control commands. The control system controls the power of the turbine by changing the parameters such as fuel quantity, rotational speed of the shaft, turbine inlet or outlet air temperature and inlet air temperature, and keeps the turbine safe and high.
In addition to the control units, the security sector also performs its own operations in parallel and monitoring the control units.
Typically, the control algorithm has three main functions:
Start and stop control
Common control during work
Protecting critical parameters

System controller


Gas turbines often have 4 controllers:
Start the controller
Speed ​​controller
Load controller
Turbine load controller
Control systems control the fuel flow to the combustion chamber to achieve the following:
1. Maintain the constant speed of the shaft at all times
2. Control the acceleration of the shaft within the limits (during startup)
3. Control the temperature of the blades and the turbine's inner shell
4. Control the amount of load required for production units

To control the parameters of the above gas turbines, they often have 5 controllers:
Startup controller, Speed ​​controller, Accelerometer controller, Load controller, Turbine temperature controller
These 5 controllers always perform their own computing calculations in parallel, but always the controller output that offers the safest amount of fuel is used as a reference fuel control. For this reason, in the control system, some kind of turbine protection debate is included in the control system so that if the controller fails, the rest of the controllers will back up the amount of fuel to the limit.

Protection system


Beside the controller and supervisor there are security units that typically include:
Temperature protection, Vibration protection, Overspeed protection, Fire alarm system
As already mentioned, the protection sectors are always observing the protection parameter independently of the control section, and in case of exceeding the permissible limit, it initially sends an alert (warning) and informs the operator of the system's inaccuracies. And if the defect is not fixed or there is a possibility of damage to the turbine and its accessories, there is the possibility of emergency stopping of the turbine by the relevant protection.

Industrial gas turbines for electric power generation


Industrial gas turbines for the production of electrical power, or turbogenerators, are gas turbines, where the power generated by them is transferred to the generator and then converted to electrical potential energy. This type of gas turbine can be used as a simple cycle or combined cycle. In simple cycles, hot gases from the turbine exhaust directly enter the air and the remaining energy is wasted, but in the combined cycle, one or two gas turbines are coupled to a steam turbine, and the hot gases from the gas turbine in a boiler Recovery returns the water from the steam turbine condenser to the water vapor, resulting in water vapor without any fuel, so the overall efficiency increases with this method. Turbogenerators can also be used to generate electricity and heat simultaneously for the production of hot water or hot air for buildings and factories.

Gas turbines for mechanical power generation


These types of gas turbines, including turbo-compressors and turbopumps, are gas turbines in which turbine generated energy is used only to turn a compressor (to compress a gas substance) or a pump (to increase the pressure of a fluid).
Sample Description.

The main purpose of this controller design was to replace the old I and II SpeedTronic systems. But it is clear that considering the same structure of gas turbines, it is possible to customize it and replace other controllers.


This system has the ability to control steady-state turbines (for launching synchronous generators) as well as variable ranges (for launching pumps, etc.). It is also possible to use the Isochronous and Droop modes for this controller. The temperature control section has the Base, Peak and Peak reserves modes.

This control system is designed for installation on gas turbines. The system has tried to use the latest technology of existing controllers. The selection of hardware, inventory, selected standards, traditionality in the Iranian industry and the frequency of services have been considered.
The entire control system is completely redundant and the protection sections are designed as fail safe. This system has local monitoring and remote control for the central steering room. Also, engineering and maintenance systems are also foreseen. All events are tagged in this system and can be retrieved if needed.

The overall structure of the controller is based on the Siemens PCS7 Family (SIEMENS) family. From the indicators of this design
The following can be noted:

Use DCS structure
The main controller of the 400 family
Very fast auxiliary controller for controlling the governor's signals
The completely redundant structure of the H family
Fail safe design for protection segments up to SIL3 level according to IEC61508
Using the Siemens Powerful Monitoring and Processing System (WinCC)

 

The executive team of Ramyar Turbo Compressor consisted of 12 of the top engineers of the company, which has high education in electrical engineering, electrical engineering control, electrical engineering, mechanical engineering, as well as a long history of turbine control and how Their function has succeeded in establishing a control system based on DCS technology and the first native turbine control system in Iran.
This unit is managed directly by the technical director of the company.

The organizational chart of this unit is as follows:

 

1. Design and installation of the first comprehensive control and protection system for gas turbine in IRAN on the 25 MW Alstom unit of Mashhad Power Plant

Project Design and installation of the comprehensive control and protection system for gas turbine of Mashhad Power Plant
Employer Mashhad Power Production Management Company
Unit name Alstom 2
Used Technology DCS SIEMENS PCS7
Estimated time 24 Month
Unit capacity 25 Mega Watt
Delivery Date 2011 December

2. Design and installation of control and protection system of gas turbine on Kangan power plant

Project Design and installation of control and protection system of gas turbine on Kangan power plant
Employer South Fars Power Production Management Company
Unit name Unit 3
Used Technology DCS SIEMENS PCS7
Estimated time 3 Month
Unit capacity 25 Mega Watt
Delivery Date 2013 Avril

3. Design and installation of control and protection system of gas turbine on Poly Acryl Company

Project Design and installation of control and protection system of gas turbine on Poly Acryl Company
Employer Poly Acryl Company
Unit name GE Unit
Used Technology DCS SIEMENS PCS7
Estimated time 3 Month
Unit capacity 25 Mega Watt
Delivery Date 2013 November

4. Design and installation of control and protection system of Acec gas turbine on Unit 2 of Rey power plant

Project Design and installation of control and protection system of Acec gas turbine on Unit 2 of Rey power plant
Employer Rey Power Production Management Company
Unit name Acec 2(Westinghouse)
Used Technology DCS SIEMENS PCS7
Estimated time 18 Month
Unit capacity 32 Mega Watt
Delivery Date 2015 November

5. Design and installation of control and protection system of gas turbine on Kish power plant

Project Design and installation of control and protection system of gas turbine on Kish power plant
Employer Kish Water and Power Company
Unit name GE (Alstom)
Used Technology DCS SIEMENS PCS7
Estimated time 7 Month
Unit capacity 25 Mega Watt
Delivery Date 2015 Mars

6. Design and installation of control and protection system of gas turbine on Khark power plant

Project Design and installation of control and protection system of gas turbine on Khark power plant
Employer Fars Regional Electricity Company
Unit name F5 Gas Unit
Used Technology DCS SIEMENS PCS7
Estimated time 3 Month
Unit capacity 25 Mega Watt
Delivery Date 2016 Avril

7. Design and installation of Ramyar gas turbine control and protection system on Sarakhs power plant

Project Design and installation of gas turbine control and protection system on Sarakhs power plant
Employer Sarakhs power plant
Unit name Alstom
Used Technology DCS SIEMENS PCS7
Estimated time 5 Month
Unit capacity 25 Mega Watt
Delivery Date 2017 May

8. Design and installation of Ramyar gas turbine control and protection system on Unit 3 of Rey power plant

Project Design and installation of control and protection system of gas turbine on Rey power plant
Employer Rey Power Production Management Company
Unit name Acec 3(Westinghouse)
Used Technology DCS SIEMENS PCS7
Estimated time 7 Month
Unit capacity 32 Mega Watt
Delivery Date 2017 December

1. Design and installation of Ramyar gas turbine control and protection system on Mitsubishi Unit of Rey power plant

 

Project   Design and installation of control and protection system of gas turbine on Rey power plant
Employer Rey Power Production Management Company
Unit name Mitsubishi
Used Technology DCS SIEMENS PCS7
Estimated time 6 Month
Unit capacity 85 Mega Watt
Delivery Date  

 

Mashhad Power Plant
Kangan Power Plant
Isfahan polyacrylic company
Reich Power Plant
Kish Power Plant
Khar power plant
Sarakhs Power Plant
Ramin Ahvaz Power Plant
Bandar Abbas Power Plant
Mashhad urban train
Khorasan Steel Co.
Shahid Hasheminejad Refinery (Khangiran)
South Pars Gas Complex (Assaluyeh)